fundamental principles of classical mechanics pdf

4�c#��?#�r�~0��t�Z ���Q 875 531.3 531.3 875 849.5 799.8 812.5 862.3 738.4 707.2 884.3 879.6 419 581 880.8 25 0 obj <> endobj endobj /Subtype/Type1 endobj 500 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 625 833.3 /LastChar 196 777.8 777.8 1000 1000 777.8 777.8 1000 777.8] 511.1 511.1 511.1 831.3 460 536.7 715.6 715.6 511.1 882.8 985 766.7 255.6 511.1] W�4J��Vͳ[ѩz��;}���7c%(�Ȝ�#��s_/c}�]�Or�����ƣ��d���k3� 9�Ŭ�O{>Y�ؙ/t�a$=��8�1w�M��rǁw��zwV#މK�@�f?7����8N"�=�ْO���[�O�Td��ʿ$�F)/�-����%�|�ԭp�8>3�/���6�_�/4�ZhTV�G��AMR endobj 812.5 875 562.5 1018.5 1143.5 875 312.5 562.5] >> 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 615.3 833.3 762.8 694.4 742.4 831.3 779.9 583.3 666.7 612.2 0 0 772.4 /Subtype/Type1 ����g,6�d�Z����=-iρ#W�Ǫ��z}�*�-�ǭlAzw�L %%EOF 750 758.5 714.7 827.9 738.2 643.1 786.2 831.3 439.6 554.5 849.3 680.6 970.1 803.5 >> Sq���c��ˡ��b\cse�2 ��w�� ]������MPI���Bj_��� ��3 869.4 818.1 830.6 881.9 755.6 723.6 904.2 900 436.1 594.4 901.4 691.7 1091.7 900 /FirstChar 33 611.1 798.5 656.8 526.5 771.4 527.8 718.7 594.9 844.5 544.5 677.8 762 689.7 1200.9 the fundamental principles and laws of mechanics should be used to derive the governing equations holding the condition o f statics (rest) or dynamics (motion) of the bodies studied. 639.7 565.6 517.7 444.4 405.9 437.5 496.5 469.4 353.9 576.2 583.3 602.5 494 437.5 Since his time the theory has been reformulated and generalized in various ways. 275 1000 666.7 666.7 888.9 888.9 0 0 555.6 555.6 666.7 500 722.2 722.2 777.8 777.8 319.4 958.3 638.9 575 638.9 606.9 473.6 453.6 447.2 638.9 606.9 830.6 606.9 606.9 277.8 500 555.6 444.4 555.6 444.4 305.6 500 555.6 277.8 305.6 527.8 277.8 833.3 555.6 465 322.5 384 636.5 500 277.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 863.9 786.1 863.9 862.5 638.9 800 884.7 869.4 1188.9 869.4 869.4 702.8 319.4 602.8 These reformulations have made its basic assumptions a lot clearer, but without changing the essential basis of the theory. N� /Name/F2 &ٶľ�L�;؇ME�ئGn�f@�fHF���z����-�}���ظ�D��6��� g����M'�Yy��c�RoKB���w��J��1g������L�x]�T&��0{��\\Оd�d�MC���N�M��?͒�.�Z���&�^XY�j�.u\�t����������Mt53Q��r��\g�&NMם�R���2N��`�N50'*��_��I��ȓ]��ίVp&tZF�9m��v����ڹK��m��'I^���8�X����ϸ��*p�?�%�4��h���A�zU>s�"�"P��MRjS-� \\��)�AW����Ww��,T2�!BӮ�O-��E!�.��4k���n��xn�D���ȋ���C�B3�(�m�C澀8�-�=A��^�8:��$N/��}o���W��O��;�;��=Xŏ���l�c`kk�j�^*>®����m�M�����_��3j�U{F5a_�� ��f�}COZX|t�u����^�g �G��G��� � ��! /Widths[342.6 581 937.5 562.5 937.5 875 312.5 437.5 437.5 562.5 875 312.5 375 312.5 xڍ�rܸ����MT��& ���A��3N9vj��9D9Pݐ1��mY��� �ny|�����.�0�..��o^��/���/n�/�2 ��b�_zq����o���mr�DaN0�4J�2�ب(�c��換��]�ڨ" ������޽��s/�ܬ6ٔa�^l�",y��q�;����}?�WI�z�;싂�}=����摇�u�0h\n�z t�w����;�/ëMZ��'�m5��튓i�k�ύ~x�Z��6Ih-����ݎ���+o�8L3����P7�B&�*�����,����;� ֬�`�������^����ۚ��Y����4�=m��9f�qW�� �:�� t�_�O�u�'4Ӿ���{�kk�|�n�UI����m"t�a�J�=��\Y�IΜd�'.Lh�w��*6I*d��a�����}�d�0 50 0 obj <>stream 777.8 694.4 666.7 750 722.2 777.8 722.2 777.8 0 0 722.2 583.3 555.6 555.6 833.3 833.3 656.3 625 625 937.5 937.5 312.5 343.8 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 849.5 500 574.1 endobj /BaseFont/XYMPZL+CMR10 /FirstChar 33 /Subtype/Type1 >> 277.8 305.6 500 500 500 500 500 750 444.4 500 722.2 777.8 500 902.8 1013.9 777.8 /BaseFont/JPUBEL+CMTI10 511.1 575 1150 575 575 575 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 endstream endobj 29 0 obj <>stream stream << h�bbd``b`�$�c�`�$Z�������L�+@\F����;? << /Subtype/Type1 319.4 575 319.4 319.4 559 638.9 511.1 638.9 527.1 351.4 575 638.9 319.4 351.4 606.9 460 664.4 463.9 485.6 408.9 511.1 1022.2 511.1 511.1 511.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 525 768.9 627.2 896.7 743.3 766.7 678.3 766.7 729.4 562.2 715.6 743.3 743.3 998.9 388.9 1000 1000 416.7 528.6 429.2 432.8 520.5 465.6 489.6 477 576.2 344.5 411.8 520.6 ���+�)�ގ��ՋB\��v%�؆E���fV�Eǣ鬻�ԫ;>pR�ȩ�t�ih��=�8I$�U}3�E 8IA����g�Ǫn����&�s'�E�7�.#�Ԗnff8쒱}�`��P~>���5�0\J�u\�;S�5�Dr�s�:-��X��w]y�br�Rg`�,�~�^E�Y-���ަ~�>�5�gI�ԟF�,�.�S����Ϣ�c��Q5���N��.uI��=��c���Q����D'�#�gI�|ʢ�|�i���7��_~. z����2e9�g9�E� p~"���D�*r��L@��f�lm���8�v�&���5� �����*�&(�fm� /LastChar 196 F = dp dt; (1) where p = mv = momentum of body of mass m moving with velocity v. 675.9 1067.1 879.6 844.9 768.5 844.9 839.1 625 782.4 864.6 849.5 1162 849.5 849.5 << �5v�=�?�Mdm�Ҍ� ��G3���n������Q��B�FY��_h��?���iĤF��;��7G7�%�XԸ��r�1H����z؛�{�#�x� �!c�@l�g����C�U͸&t��L��i���H��*6�������j���pv�v��Y����?7%v�bF�'c�B��W�Z!G�=؞�Gx����e�6큹s �[1�c��\Y!�2f?�-.���kf�� ���;&�6q��Pv��'Ә�D��{�X_��N�aT1�xQ:��HJ`�=�fC�N�RaT\Dt�`�����*Q����)"�)�8a0-T�e>��J)�\�0ve�)8D���Q����f�����ϯn�@�Z!a!8Z�h݌=w�̸=� ��'Y `�b$$w�AF �?��ގ�W�T����B�t�+@ � R6i�&��+@�' ����A ��a��@Kǝ���ְ7�ö�(���xKvO �=�����7@"*�績��8���V�W���b|���t�N�r�b�����������L�t�k�� �d9؈�hD�`��fR4/p}8���ng��]���u�-�s��d6��uK~'V���L, �-��0�y�J͖��6w��ڈ��2�2#���C�2�?_z����n~�RQ����{Ñ��^���p�������R�*� ��ep�Rkb��grc���$A�ۈ��K�]��"\�s����Q���� ��C�jBt?�C /Type/Font /Name/F6 /BaseFont/TKLILQ+CMSY10 306.7 511.1 511.1 511.1 511.1 511.1 511.1 511.1 511.1 511.1 511.1 511.1 306.7 306.7 /BaseFont/IHDGXF+CMBX10 /FontDescriptor 8 0 R a^���Q�k��ǵ�@C(�_���"Ld�sa��gx�Y�(��.-�t���s� 638.9 638.9 958.3 958.3 319.4 351.4 575 575 575 575 575 869.4 511.1 597.2 830.6 894.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 691.7 958.3 894.4 805.6 766.7 900 830.6 894.4 830.6 894.4 0 0 830.6 670.8 500 500 611.1 500 277.8 833.3 750 833.3 416.7 666.7 666.7 777.8 777.8 444.4 444.4 >> /FirstChar 33 %PDF-1.2 500 555.6 527.8 391.7 394.4 388.9 555.6 527.8 722.2 527.8 527.8 444.4 500 1000 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 277.8 277.8 777.8 500 777.8 500 530.9 << 1. 2. 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They are the basis of all classical mechanics. /LastChar 196 306.7 766.7 511.1 511.1 766.7 743.3 703.9 715.6 755 678.3 652.8 773.6 743.3 385.6 Appraisal of a Cambridge lecturer in classical mechanics, circa 1690 1.1 Introduction The fundamental principles of classical mechanics were laid down by Galileo and New-ton in the 16 thand 17 centuries. /Widths[1000 500 500 1000 1000 1000 777.8 1000 1000 611.1 611.1 1000 1000 1000 777.8 /FontDescriptor 20 0 R 12 0 obj /Widths[277.8 500 833.3 500 833.3 777.8 277.8 388.9 388.9 500 777.8 277.8 333.3 277.8 /Length 3980 /BaseFont/FPHGWV+CMBX12 /Name/F1 26 0 obj 298.4 878 600.2 484.7 503.1 446.4 451.2 468.8 361.1 572.5 484.7 715.9 571.5 490.3 NEWTONIAN MECHANICS Newton formulated what is now called ’classical mechanics’. 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 277.8 277.8 277.8 777.8 472.2 472.2 777.8 762.8 642 790.6 759.3 613.2 584.4 682.8 583.3 944.4 828.5 580.6 682.6 388.9 388.9 h�b```f``R���@ (��kf?�X��p$*aVhV���������� �.Ff/ �Ĝ`�p��,Lܫnq�6'00�]eh�p30��iF �b>FaF�Q � ��- 343.8 593.8 312.5 937.5 625 562.5 625 593.8 459.5 443.8 437.5 625 593.8 812.5 593.8 /FirstChar 33 endstream endobj 26 0 obj <> endobj 27 0 obj <> endobj 28 0 obj <>stream 21 0 obj >> $�!=��pCEL������� �-�8(w*�N�����eo�z����D�V���Թ� v� �oϟf\�7f�}��v���A�����֢�$ZL%2��;�IZ`�oH`�D�("l6 �-��,=�Y���"B bK�����_-0h�J1j��مg9DϞ� �TU�LQ�� �h+� /Widths[306.7 514.4 817.8 769.1 817.8 766.7 306.7 408.9 408.9 511.1 766.7 306.7 357.8 /Type/Font 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 627.2 817.8 766.7 692.2 664.4 743.3 715.6 766.7 715.6 766.7 0 0 715.6 613.3 562.2 587.8 881.7 894.4 306.7 332.2 511.1 511.1 9 0 obj /FirstChar 33 /Type/Font >> 743.3 743.3 613.3 306.7 514.4 306.7 511.1 306.7 306.7 511.1 460 460 511.1 460 306.7 /Widths[350 602.8 958.3 575 958.3 894.4 319.4 447.2 447.2 575 894.4 319.4 383.3 319.4 hޤ��o�8�����Պ�_yI+$K��m�j��J�)xi�@P�Օ��f�$��Ae���3���q��\�?�z C��@y>(�������=�"�B�UA�k���* �T��.|�ꌲ4ˣ]��tSxd��m��|{,/�2.Ipqr� 750 708.3 722.2 763.9 680.6 652.8 784.7 750 361.1 513.9 777.8 625 916.7 750 777.8 /Widths[622.5 466.3 591.4 828.1 517 362.8 654.2 1000 1000 1000 1000 277.8 277.8 500 /Filter[/FlateDecode] ����h���w�hf�z��oD��h��s���QFc5������=!�=!~�6�4T&%�I�QV�t. /FontDescriptor 14 0 R 2.1.2 The Fundamental Principles The fundamental laws of mechanics are Newton’s three laws of motion. 35 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<74AE6DBF030348C14EF503F5C80687B2><11816AF974A6664CBC0C06D163313151>]/Index[25 26]/Info 24 0 R/Length 66/Prev 70688/Root 26 0 R/Size 51/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream *�B��=��i7=ƚ��*d�Njb��3�2�cvЪ>�x�A���ab�Ce�Ѻl�>���l��Ua�,'�Yy&���w�zܭ���_��{�� �V��f�=bW�7��f��c;�]I�F���d����t�J��ij���hXe��1���p.�D�lF��}�v�w���n��UŻ/p�t�;��r��9���t��&��¹��(s|���{}����R���@*h�Yv9_�;����cp�h�Ep�-%rZ��;���U�B Force = time rate of change of momentum, i.e. 460 511.1 306.7 306.7 460 255.6 817.8 562.2 511.1 511.1 460 421.7 408.9 332.2 536.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 675.9 937.5 875 787 750 879.6 812.5 875 812.5 875 0 0 812.5

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