where do juniper berries grow

Juniper has been declining throughout the UK in range and abundance. The cones from a handful of species, especially Juniperus communis, are used as a spice, particularly in European cuisine, and also give gin its distinctive flavour. However, not everyone has this opportunity. 2296645), is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Woodland Trust. It is not known exactly why, but it appears that the plants are unable to regenerate successfully, a problem partially attributed to browsing of foliage by deer and rabbits. Junipers grow in most parts of North America. [17] The berries imported into Egypt may have come from Greece; the Greeks record using juniper berries as a medicine long before mentioning their use in food. Common Juniper Juniperus communis Common juniper is a sprawling, evergreen shrub that tends to grow in colonies on chalk downland, moorland, rocky slopes and coastal heaths. The name gin itself is derived from either the French genièvre or the Dutch jenever, which both mean "juniper". Juniper, typically Juniperus communis, is used to flavor gin, a liquor developed in the 17th century in the Netherlands. In this state, they overwinter and continue to grow in the spring. Other common names common juniper juniper Synonyms Juniperus intermedia. Therefore, these plants often grow in partial shade. They will grow happily in a range of different soils but prefer it to be slightly on the acidic side. Make sure the soil is well-draining to ensure your juniper grows well in a wide range of temperatures. [13] In addition to medical and culinary purposes, Native Americans have also used the seeds inside juniper berries as beads for jewellery and decoration. Junipers can be grown in your garden or a large plant pot but ensure that the area is free of weeds. Junipers are really hardy and great for ... 2. Propagating Juniper From Cuttings. 1. It produces dark-blue berries that contain small seeds and can grow at a variety of elevations. Juniper (Juniperus) is a genus that belongs to the Cupressaceae family. Juniper berries typically form half to two-thirds of the total botanicals in a batch of gin. The mistle thrush is known for vigorously guarding the berries to stop other birds eating them! Delivery is free. There are even people that make small bonsai trees out of the juniper. Use well-draining soil to make sure your juniper grows well in a wide range of temperatures. Juniper is a small, bushy conifer that grows in many countries with cold climates, including Canada and Iceland. Place the rootball into the hole, pat down the surrounding soil and give it a good watering. They have also recently become a popular ingredient in liqueurs and sauces and are used as a spice, particularly in European cuisine. The plants need full sun and a well drained soil. Junipers are drought tolerant and do not like overly wet soil. [5] But the berries of some species, such as Juniperus sabina, are toxic and consumption of them is inadvisable. Previous to these impressive efforts, southern parts of the UK has seen a loss of around 60–70% of the gin plant, mainly because smaller animals and wildlife graze on the tasty berries. It might also be effective in fighting bacteria and viruses. Its two favoured habitats are quite different: in the north it grows on acid soils on cold, rainy moorland alongside heather and bilberry; in the south it prefers the hot, dry, calcium-rich soils of downland. For Romans, these berries are great medicines for all kinds of ailments. It may be a low, spreading shrub or … Uses of Juniper Berries How to Use Juniper Berries Common juniper, Juniperus comunis, belongs to the family Cupressaceae that encompasses around 60-70 species of aromatic evergreens throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Autumn leaf identification quiz: can you identify these 10 trees? For gin production, the majority of juniper berries are sourced from around the Mediterranean with the finest berries growing in Italy and Macedonia. [4] It was also used as an adulterant, as reported in Pliny the Elder's Natural History: "Pepper is adulterated with juniper berries, which have the property, to a marvellous degree, of assuming the pungency of pepper. But the berries of some species, such as Juniperus sabina, are toxic and consumption of them is inadvisable. A juniper berry is the female seed cone produced by the various species of junipers. Its bark is grey-brown and peels with age, and its twigs are reddish brown. Juniper is low maintenance and easy to grow. Juniper berries grow all year round. A Spartan juniper is much larger and grows at a rate of 10 to 18 inches per year. Thriving in sun or part shade, the berries can take up to two years to ripen. Some junipers are given the common name "cedar," including Juniperus virginiana, the "red cedar" that is used widely in cedar drawers and closets. There are about 60 different species of Junipers, but the most common variety is called Juniperus communis. Other common names common juniper juniper Synonyms Juniperus intermedia. Juniper berries, including Juniperus phoenicea and Juniperus oxycedrus have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs at multiple sites. Juniper might also increase the need to urinate. Types of mushroom in the UK: common identification guide, Foraging for natural Christmas decorations, Top tips for an eco-friendly and sustainable Christmas. The aromatic wood has a warm, sandy, golden colour and is used for wood turning and carving as well as for burning to smoke food. Family Cupressaceae Genus Juniperus can be prostrate or erect, evergreen shrubs or trees with aromatic, scale-like or sharply pointed awl-shaped leaves, and small globose fruits Images © protected Woodland Trust. J. oxycedrus is not known to grow in Egypt, and neither is Juniperus excelsa, which was found along with J. oxycedrus in the tomb of Tutankhamun. On the other hand, the smallest Chinese juniper tree is known to be 10 feet tall while the shrub is as small as 3 feet and under. Dig a hole about twice the size of the rootball and surrounding compost, and gently tease out the roots. We want to make sure everyone in the UK has the chance to plant a tree. Common juniper is an evergreen conifer. Northern Italian cuisine, especially that of the South Tyrol, also incorporates juniper berries. Where: gardens, parks, scrub, hedgerows and woods, especially oak and beech woods. Juniper berries are small blue “berries” that grow on evergreen shrubs or trees. Although they are well-known to the desert and mountainous areas, that is not the only place juniper plants grow. The berries are small, round, and may come in either green or purple. drupacea). Appearance: fleshy, purple, aromatic, berry-like cones. If you put him there, he will most likely not die immediately. Juniper is low maintenance and easy to grow. Pick berries in the fall once the plant has numerous blue berries. [19] The Romans used juniper berries as a cheap domestically produced substitute for the expensive black pepper and long pepper imported from India. The Greeks used the berries in many of their Olympics events because of t… Its berries are not edible, because they’re toxic to humans. It was said that you would prosper if you dreamed of gathering juniper berries in winter, and the berries themselves signified honour or the birth of a boy. [1], All juniper species grow berries, but some are considered too bitter to eat. The berries are a little smaller than regular … Juniper berries ripen during 2 to 3 years. An elegantly upright plant, the Juniper forms a neat cone of grey-green foliage with berries used to flavour gin. To do that, the industry needs a secure supply of one gin's key ingredients – juniper berries. The Greeks used juniper berries as an herb for purification ceremonies and to increase physical stamina (particularly for athletes), recording the use of juniper berries as medicine long before they were said to start using the berries as a spice in foods. Juniper berries have a citrusy smell. With shapes ranging from ground-hugging juniper bushes just 6 inches high to towering juniper trees 130 feet tall, and colors from steely blue to shimmering gold, there’s a juniper that suits nearly every landscape need. Press a piece of two … [7] The outer scales of the berries are relatively flavourless, so the berries are almost always at least lightly crushed before being used as a spice. Growing in the partial sun or light shade is also possible; most species will grow well. For example, one field guide describes the flesh of the berries of Juniperus californica as "dry, mealy, and fibrous but sweet and without resin cells". Juniper berries, including Juniperus phoenicea and Juniperus oxycedrus have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs at multiple sites. You can have them in your garden for ornamental reasons. It is the food plant for caterpillars of many species of moth, including the juniper carpet moth, juniper pug and chestnut-coloured carpet. Katie Horton, one of this year’s assistant rangers gives us an insight into the world of juniper, one of only three native conifer species in Scotland along with Scots pine and yew, and one of the Trust’s Priority Species . These drought tolerant plants do not like wet soil. It is the most widely distributed conifer in the world and the most common in the Northern temperate region. Junipers grow in most parts of North America. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. An elegantly upright plant, the Juniper forms a neat cone of grey-green foliage with berries used to flavour gin. Common juniper provides dense cover for nesting birds. All juniper species grow berries, but some are considered too bitter to eat. We have single trees and tree packs to meet your needs, from wildlife to woodfuel. Our plants are cutting-grown from a self-fertile plant, so you can expect berries from a single bush. Make sure the soil is well-draining to ensure your juniper grows well in a wide range of temperatures. Estimate full grown height: Up to 10m Berries grow on all species of juniper, though not all of them are edible. Juniper berries have lots of traditional uses and were associated with love potions. [9] Besides Norwegian and Swedish dishes, juniper berries are also sometimes used in German, Austrian, Czech, Polish and Hungarian cuisine, often with roasts (such as German sauerbraten). Many berries are commonly available in grocery stores, but other, equally delicious ones are abundant in the wild. When: year-round. The largest growth size of a Chinese juniper tree is up to 50 feet in height while the largest Chinese juniper shrub does not grow more than 8 feet in height. It's an A-Z tree guide in your pocket. Some varieties are very salt tolerant and will grow near the sea where salt spray might make it … The female bears cones that produce small round bluish-black berries, which take three years to fully mature. To do that, the industry needs a secure supply of one gin's key ingredients – juniper berries. Common juniper is known by a variety of common names but here just two are mentioned, dwarf juniper and prostrate juniper. They are found in threes around the ridged twigs. When young, the berries are green but over 18 months or so they mature to purple-black. What Are Juniper Berries? Juniper plants, shrubs, and trees grow naturally all over the Northern Hemisphere from icy arctic climates to sweltering deserts. You can find juniper trees in the wild in environments like pinon-juniper belts, high plains areas, some mixed conifer forests, near the edges of scrub oak patches, and even in the hills. J. oxycedrus is not known to grow in Egypt, and neither is Juniperus excelsa, which was found along with J. oxycedrus in the tomb of Tutankhamun. The dried berries … Blue Star Juniper. Juniperus communis. [12] Such species have been used not just as a seasoning but as a nutritive food by some Native Americans. These drought tolerant plants do not like wet soil. The plants need full sun and a well drained soil. 294344) and in Scotland (No. Before you can plant juniper seeds, you must first extract them from juniper berries, which are the berry-shaped cones that are formed on juniper plants. Add 1 teaspoon of sodium hydroxide to 1 gallon of water. Juniper berries . There are even people that make small bonsai trees out of the juniper. Juniperus communis One of only three conifer species native to the UK, common juniper is most often found as a low-growing, spreading shrub or small tree. Mature trees can reach a height of 10m and live for up to 200 years. The flavor profile of young, green berries is dominated by pinene; as they mature this piney, resinous backdrop is joined by what Harold McGee describes as "green-fresh" and citrus notes. The small, needle-like leaves are green with broad silver bands on the inner side, curving slightly to a sharp, prickly point. VAT No. Juniper berries are small blue “berries” that grow on evergreen shrubs or trees. There are many subspecies or varieties of the common juniper ( Juniperous communis).Common juniper is a low shrub that generally grows no more than 3 to 4 feet high but can grow into a 30-foot tree. Limit 2 per member They can suffer, if over watered. Some varieties are very salt tolerant and will grow near the sea where salt spray might make it … For Romans, these berries are great medicines for all kinds of ailments. It is too hot at this time, and you will … Common juniper is native to the UK, Europe and much of the northern hemisphere. Juniperus species have juvenile foliage that is usually very dense leaves. In some areas, juniper is considered to be a deterrent against the Devil and witches. These are eaten and distributed by birds. Juniper (Juniperus communis) is an evergreen shrub found on mountains and heaths throughout Europe, Southwest Asia, and North America.The tree grows to a height of 6-25 ft (2-8 m) and has stiff, pointed needles that grow to 0.4 in (1 cm) long. Value to wildlife: lots of birds eat the berries, including the fieldfare, song thrush, mistle thrush and ring ouzel. Woodland Trust (Enterprises) Limited, registered in England (No. The Woodland Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales (No. You can find juniper trees in the wild in environments like pinon-juniper belts, high plains areas, some mixed conifer forests, near the edges of scrub oak patches, and even in the hills. How to Grow Juniper. "[20] Pliny also incorrectly asserted that black pepper grew on trees that were "very similar in appearance to our junipers". Juniper has long been a popular ornamental garden plant for its four-season interest, ability to grow in most regions, and virtually carefree nature. Your plant may tolerate light shade locations, but less sun results in fewer berries on your shrub. They aren’t too picky about the soils in which they grow, with the exception of their dislike for an extremely wet one. However, in Scotland it has been decreasing for the last few decades. Value to wildlife: the berries are a vital source of food for birds in winter. Look out for: needles that have a single pale band on the upper surface and are grey-green beneath. Create small furrows in the soil roughly 6 inches apart and 1 to 2 inches deep. You can have them in your garden for ornamental reasons. Traditional recipes for choucroute garnie, an Alsatian dish of sauerkraut and meats, universally include juniper berries. It thrives on chalk lowland, moorland, in rocky areas and old native-pine woodland. [1] Other juniper-flavoured beverages include the Finnish rye-and-juniper beer known as sahti, which is flavored with both juniper berries and branches. Juniper berries may be the only spice derived from conifers. How to Grow Juniper. Registered office: Kempton Way, Grantham, Lincolnshire, NG31 6LL. From Bostock and Riley's 1855 translation. If you are looking for something to do with juniper berries, I suppose you could always follow in Dr. Sylvuis’s footsteps and make your own gin, or bathtub gin, but there are plenty of other ways to impart that unique juniper flavor into foods. They are … What Do Juniper Berries Taste Like? Thanks to their hard work, juniper berries have increased in areas including Sussex, Hampshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire. The lack of space or a hyphen between the words "red" and "cedar" is sometimes used to indicate that this species is not a true cedar, Cedrus. The only difference between green and purple juniper berries is their age. Elderberries are the fruit of various species of the Sambucus plant. The brand Dry Soda produces a juniper-berry soda as part of its lineup. This cypress family member has been cultivated for centuries because it is easy-to-grow, incredibly hardy to practically every region, and provides gardeners with a year-round ornamental interest for their landscape. Once pollinated by wind, the green female structures develop into fleshy, purple, aromatic, berry-like cones. They can suffer if over-watered. Where: thrives on chalk downland, moorland, in rocky areas and old native pine woodland. Discover our recent challenges and successes and how you can help. They can also be planted to the right or left of tall plants. Generally found in the Northern hemisphere, Juniper’s berries were used as flavoring agents of whiskey in Scotland in medieval times. The essential oil is also used in aromatherapy and perfumery. Juniper berries typically form half to two-thirds of the total botanicals in a batch of gin. They are used both fresh and dried, but their flavour and odour are at their strongest immediately after harvest and decline during drying and storage. It thrives on chalk lowland, moorland, in rocky areas and in old native-pine woodland. As juniper berries age, they turn from light green to purple. Juniper berries are a tree-grown fruit originating from juniper trees. A number of birds eat the fruit, including the fieldfare, song thrush, mistle thrush and ring ouzel. Referred to as a Juniper Berry Bark: New growth green, branches reddish, Mature bark grey often with reddish tone and vertical shredding Habitat: Highly varied habitats, scrubland, conifer forests, fields, rocky areas, can withstand very cold temperatures, tolerant of varied soil alkalinity The most famous use of juniper berries is in the flavouring of gin. Recently, some American distilleries have begun using 'New World' varieties of juniper such as Juniperus occidentalis. There are about 60 different species of Junipers, but the most common variety is called Juniperus communis. The bark is grey-brown and peels with age. [16] In traditional medicine, juniper berries were used for female birth control.[13]. They are a real treasure. When to Harvest Juniper Berries. Thriving in sun or part shade, the berries can take up to two years to ripen. There are many subspecies or varieties of the common juniper ( Juniperous communis).Common juniper is a low shrub that generally grows no more than 3 to 4 feet high but can grow into a 30-foot tree. The plants grow in Asia, Europe and North America. Most often found as a low-growing, spreading shrub or small tree. The Greeks used juniper berries as an herb for purification ceremonies and to increase physical stamina (particularly for athletes), recording the use of juniper berries as medicine long before they were said to start using the berries as a spice in foods. Generally found in the Northern hemisphere, Juniper’s berries were used as flavoring agents of whiskey in Scotland in medieval times. [18] The Greeks used the berries in many of their Olympics events because of their belief that the berries increased physical stamina in athletes. Juniper berries are used in northern European and particularly Scandinavian cuisine to "impart a sharp, clear flavor"[1] to meat dishes, especially wild birds (including thrush, blackbird, and woodcock) and game meats (including boar and venison). Calling all gin lovers: 7 steps to growing your own juniper at home. They are … In addition to J. communis, other edible species include Juniperus drupacea,[2][3] Juniperus phoenicea,[4] Juniperus deppeana, and Juniperus californica. The female cones look like blueberries.Identified in winter by: its needles which are present all year round. 1982873. Size. The berries are green when young, and mature to a purple-black colour over about 18 months in most species, including J. communis (shorter, 8–10 months in a few species, and about 24 months in J. Although they are well-known to the desert and mountainous areas, that is not the only place juniper plants grow. Many of us will be familiar with the aromatic taste that juniper gives one of our favourite tipples; gin, but how much do we know about the plant the berries come from? Thanks to their hard work, juniper berries have increased in areas including Sussex, Hampshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire. The only difference between green and purple juniper berries is their age. It is most often found as a low-growing, spreading shrub or small tree. [8] They also season pork, cabbage, and sauerkraut dishes. A non-profit-making company limited by guarantee. They thrive in mild … Look for a plant with berries that appear blue on it in this open sunny area. SC038885). However, if you are thinking about growing your own, you may struggle to find male and female plants and some suggest the … Over 70 species found in the UK, from all the native trees to the common non-natives. Look for a plant with berries that appear blue on it in this open sunny area. Download our free Tree ID app for Android and iPhone to identify the UK's native and non-native trees. What are Juniper Berries? No matter what purpose you grow Juniper, remember that it needs enough sunlight. Elderberries. "Title 21, Chapter I, Subchapter B, Part 182, Electronic Code of Federal Regulations – Substances Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS); section §182.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates)", "Juniper: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Juniper_berry&oldid=969657892, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 July 2020, at 18:41. Because they can tolerate extremely dry conditions, you may have met a juniper even if you live in the city. It thrives on chalk lowland, moorland, in rocky areas and old native-pine woodland. Registered in England No. Most people tend to use purple juniper berries more than green berries in cooking. [15] Mainly due to an increased risk of miscarriage, even in small doses, consuming juniper berries may affect pregnant or breastfeeding women[16] and people with diabetes, bleeding disorders or after surgery. One of only three conifer species native to the UK, common juniper is most often found as a low-growing, spreading shrub or small tree. What Are Juniper Berries? Juniper trees take up to three years to produce full, lush leaves and berries. The ancient Romans, Greeks, and Egyptians were known to have used juniper berries. The dried berries … [4], While classified as generally recognized as safe in the United States,[14] juniper berries may have various side effects that have not been tested extensively in clinical trials. They generally grow in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 to 10, but this varies depending on the species and cultivar. Common juniper is native to the UK, Europe and much of the northern hemisphere. In addition to J. communis, other edible species include Juniperus drupacea, Juniperus phoenicea, Juniperus deppeana, and Juniperus californica. Male structures are small, yellow and globular, and grow in leaf axils near the tips of twigs. The common juniper is hardy in USDA zones 2 to 6 and is found in a wide variety of soils. Common junipers prefer full-sun locations where they receive a minimum of six to eight hours of direct sun each day. The Woodland Trust and Woodland Trust Nature Detectives logos are registered trademarks. "There are juniper berries all over the place – I've found them growing in Chicago and Scotland – but most of the juniper for the gin trade comes from Italy. Common juniper provides dense cover for nesting birds, such as the goldcrest and firecrest, and, in northern upland areas, the black grouse. Juniper Description. The berries are a little smaller than regular … Juniper berries are edible, and are used in gin distillation. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, between 50 and 67 species of junipers are widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa, from Ziarat, Pakistan, east to eastern Tibet in the Old World, and in the mountains of Central America. GB520 6111 04. They will grow in a variety of soils, preferring a slightly acidic soil. A cosy home for wildlife and a gin-drinker’s delight, the juniper is a much-loved evergreen that brightens up the winter months. If in the fall, the cuttings do not have enough time to root, then they will form a callus, which they can also draw water. Limit 2 per member Previous to these impressive efforts, southern parts of the UK has seen a loss of around 60–70% of the gin plant, mainly because smaller animals and wildlife graze on the tasty berries. They aren’t too picky about the soils in which they grow, with the exception of their dislike for an extremely wet one. Diuretic and kidney stimulant. The berries produce an oil which can be used to aid respiratory and digestive problems, and was once considered a good method to terminate a pregnancy. It is not a true berry but a cone with unusually fleshy and merged scales, which gives it a berry-like appearance. Because they can tolerate extremely dry conditions, you may have met a juniper even if you live in the city. Juniper berries . Juniper berries grow all year round. A common juniper will grow at a rate of about 4 to 8 inches per year. Keep in touch with the nature you love without having to leave the house. Much of the world’s supply of juniper berries are grown in eastern Europe where they are harvested in autumn and dried in the shade to avoid losing the oil. Follow Alice's top tips below: 1. They can suffer, if over watered. Juniper. Do not try to root Juniper in summer, especially in July. Berries start off green before turning purple-black over time. [10], Another drink made from the berries is a Julmust, a soft drink made in Sweden mainly sold during Christmas. Twigs are ridged. It was hung over doorways on the eve of May Day and burnt on Halloween to ward off evil spirits. For gin production, the majority of juniper berries are sourced from around the Mediterranean with the finest berries growing in Italy and Macedonia. They can suffer if over-watered. [13], An essential oil extracted from juniper berries is used in aromatherapy and perfumery. Appearance: small clusters of bright red berries. Uses of Juniper Berries They are a real treasure. Appearance. It is most often found as a low-growing, spreading shrub or small tree. Juniper berries contain chemicals that might decrease swelling. You may have noticed in that 200 year-old book that it said “a larger … Recognizing this species can be difficult because it grows in a wide variety of forms. [2] The mature, dark berries are usually but not exclusively used in cuisine, while gin is flavoured with fully grown but immature green berries.[1]. Here are some garden-worthy varieties suitable for urban lots and other common residential landscapes. Family Cupressaceae Genus Juniperus can be prostrate or erect, evergreen shrubs or trees with aromatic, scale-like or sharply pointed awl-shaped leaves, and small globose fruits Its berries are used in the flavouring of gin and have recently become a popular ingredient in liqueurs and sauces. Cultural, medicinal and culinary use of juniper throughout history has contributed to it being one of the most widely distributed woody plants in the world, spanning across Northern America, Europe and Asia. The ancient Romans, Greeks, and Egyptians were known to have used juniper berries. The first year produces flowers, the second a hard green berry, and by the third they are ripening to a deep blue. [11], A few North American juniper species produce a seed cone with a sweeter, less resinous flavor than those typically used as a spice. Our plants are cutting-grown from a self-fertile plant, so you can expect berries from a single bush. First, let’s talk about the time when it is best to root juniper … [6], Juniperus communis berries vary from four to twelve millimeters in diameter; other species are mostly similar in size, though some are larger, notably J. drupacea (20–28 mm). Credit: Armands Pharyos / Alamy Stock Photo. Junipers are drought tolerant and do not like overly wet soil. Its berries are used in the flavouring of gin and have recently become a popular ingredient in liqueurs and … To enjoy large harvests of juniper berries, make sure your juniper receives proper culture. Here are 10 tasty wild berries to try — and 8 poisonous ones to avoid. They will grow in a variety of soils, preferring a slightly acidic soil. These evergreen trees and low-growing shrubs grow seed-filled fruit and green, gray, blue or yellow foliage. Burning juniper on Walpurgis Night is said to keep witches away. Common juniper is dioecious, meaning that male and female structures grow on separate trees. According to the Canadian "Trees for Life" organization, juniper is known to … The Tam Juniper shrub (Juniperus sabina) is native to southern Europe and is popular for landscaping in the US. Small mammals like wood mice and dormice also enjoy them. https://www.homestratosphere.com/types-of-juniper-shrubs-and-trees

How To Color A Horse With Colored Pencils, Buffalo Ny Coloring Pages, Carom Seeds In Swahili, Types Of Geranium Leaves, Tangmere Airfield Map, Forest View Homosassa, Fl Lot Rent, Baker's Yeast Meaning In Urdu, Epiphone Original Series, Kayum Payarum Thoran,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *